Home
Posts
Article
Encyclopedia
Garden
Set
English
Followed
+
Following
Posts (4329)
Article
Miss Chen
12 hours ago
Miss Chen
Description: This perennial plant is 1½–3' tall and more or less erect. It is usually unbranched below, while branching occasionally above. The stems are light green or light blue, glabrous, and often glaucous; they are usually terete, although sometimes the stems are narrowly furrowed. Alternate leaves occur along the entire length of these stems, becoming gradually smaller in size as they ascend. These leaves are up to 6" long and 1¼" across, although they are typically about one-half of this size. The leaves are oblong-ovate, oblong-obovate, lanceolate, or ovate in shape, while their margins are either entire (toothless) or sparingly and bluntly toothed. Both lower and upper leaves clasp their stems. The upper leaf surface is medium green to grayish blue, glabrous, and sometimes glaucous, while the lower leaf surface is light green or light grayish blue, glabrous, and sometimes glaucous. A reticulated network of secondary veins is usually visible on the lower surface of each leaf. The central stem terminates in a panicle of flowerheads about ½–1' long and about one-half as much across; smaller panicles of flowers often develop from lateral upper stems and the axils of upper leaves. Each flowerhead is ½–1" across, consisting of 15-30 ray florets that surround a dense head of numerous disk florets. The petaloid rays of the flowerheads are light lavender or light blue-violet (rarely white), widely spreading, and narrowly oblong in shape. The corollas of the disk florets are 3-6 mm. long, tubular in shape, and 5-lobed along their upper rims. During the blooming period, they change in color from whitish yellow to purplish red, eventually turning brown afterwards. The short-triangular lobes of these corollas are erect or ascending. Surrounding the base of each flowerhead, there are glabrous phyllaries (floral bracts) in several series that are erect or appressed together; they are linear-oblong in shape or sometimes wider. These phyllaries are mostly light green or light bluish green; they have either dark green markings at their tips or solitary vertical veins that are dark green.
The branches and peduncles of the panicle are light green or light grayish blue, terete, glabrous, and sometimes glaucous; solitary leafy bracts up to 2" long and ½" occur where the branches divide. The characteristics of these leafy bracts are similar to those of the leaves. The blooming period occurs from late summer to early autumn, lasting about 3-4 weeks for a colony of plants. Afterwards, the florets are replaced by achenes with small tufts of tawny (less often white) hair; they are distributed by the wind. Individual achenes are 2-3 mm. long, narrowly oblongoid-oblanceoloid in shape, slightly flattened, and variably colored (usually some shade of gray or brown with whitish fine ribs). The root system is fibrous and rhizomatous; older plants may develop small woody caudices. Occasionally, clonal offsets are produced from the rhizomes.
Cultivation: The preference is full to partial sun, mesic conditions, and soil containing loam, clay-loam, sandy loam, or some rocky material. This plant usually remains erect while in bloom and it is able to tolerate hot dry weather if it is not too prolonged. The foliage is occasional marred by powdery mildew and other foliar diseases to some extent; good air circulation reduces this vulnerability. Smooth Blue Aster is easy to cultivate in gardens if taller and more aggressive plants are kept away from it. Range & Habitat: The native Smooth Blue Aster occurs occasionally in most counties of Illinois, but it is uncommon or absent in western and SE Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include mesic black soil prairies, hill prairies, savannas, rocky open woodlands, sandy woodlands, woodland edges, thickets, limestone glades, and roadside embankments. Smooth Blue Aster is usually found in higher quality natural areas where the original ground flora is intact. It is sometimes cultivated in gardens because of its attractive foliage and flowerheads.
Faunal Associations: The nectar and pollen of the flowerheads attract honeybees, bumblebees, cuckoo bees (Triepeolus spp., Coelioxys spp.), digger bees (Melissodes spp.), leaf-cutting bees (Megachile spp.), Halictid bees (Agapostemon spp., Halictus spp., Lasioglossum spp.), Andrenid bees (including the oligolectic bee, Andrena asteris), Sphecid wasps, Syrphid flies (Eristalis spp., Helophilus spp., Syrphus spp., Toxomerus spp.), Muscid flies, butterflies, and skippers (see Graenicher). Other insects feed destructively on the leaves, flowerheads, and other parts of Smooth Blue Aster. These species include a leaf beetle (Ophraella pilosa), larvae of a leaf-mining fly (Nemorimyza posticata), larvae of the Papery Blister Gall Midge (Asteromyia laeviana), the Short-winged Meadow Katydid (Conocephalus brevipennis), and caterpillars of a butterfly, the Pearl Crescent (Phyciodes tharos); see Clark et al. (2004), Needham et al. (1928), Felt (1917), Gangwere (1961), and Opler & Krizek (1984). The Insect Table and Moth Table list additional insects that feed on this and other asters (Symphyotrichum spp.). Two upland gamebirds, the Ruffed Grouse and Wild Turkey, feed on both the leaves and seeds of asters. The Tree Sparrow and White-footed Mouse also eat the seeds. The young foliage of these plants is browsed occasionally by various mammalian herbivores, including deer, rabbits, groundhogs, horses, cattle, and sheep.
Photographic Location: The photographs were taken at a restored prairie of Meadowbrook Park in Urbana, Illinois, and at a small restored prairie along a drainage ditch in the same city. Comments: Smooth Blue Aster (Symphyotrichum laeve) has many attractive qualities – they include its adaptability, beautiful flowerheads, attractive foliage, and flowering stems that usually remain erect. It's surprising that this aster is not grown more often in flower gardens. Smooth Blue Aster can be distinguished from other asters (Symphyotrichum spp.) primarily by the lack of hairs on its smooth foliage and stems; its foliage often has grayish or bluish tints. Other asters tend to have leaves that are hairy or rough-textured, while others have stems with lines of hair. Another distinctive characteristic is the lack of petioles – the leaves of Smooth Blue Aster clasp their stems. A scientific synonym of this plant is Aster laevis.
Description: This perennial plant is 1½–3' tall and more or less erect. It is usually unbranched below, while branching occasionally above. The stems are light green or light blue, glabrous, and often glaucous; they are usually terete, although sometimes the stems are narrowly furrowed. Alternate leaves occur along the entire length of these stems, becoming gradually smaller in size as they ascend. These leaves are up to 6
Description: This perennial plant is 1½–3' tall and more or less erect. It is usually unbranched below, while branching occasionally above. The stems are light green or light blue, glabrous, and often glaucous; they are usually terete, although sometimes the stems are narrowly furrowed. Alternate leaves occur along the entire length of these stems, becoming gradually smaller in size as they ascend. These leaves are up to 6
Description: This perennial plant is 1½–3' tall and more or less erect. It is usually unbranched below, while branching occasionally above. The stems are light green or light blue, glabrous, and often glaucous; they are usually terete, although sometimes the stems are narrowly furrowed. Alternate leaves occur along the entire length of these stems, becoming gradually smaller in size as they ascend. These leaves are up to 6
Description: This perennial plant is 1½–3' tall and more or less erect. It is usually unbranched below, while branching occasionally above. The stems are light green or light blue, glabrous, and often glaucous; they are usually terete, although sometimes the stems are narrowly furrowed. Alternate leaves occur along the entire length of these stems, becoming gradually smaller in size as they ascend. These leaves are up to 6
Description: This perennial plant is 1½–3' tall and more or less erect. It is usually unbranched below, while branching occasionally above. The stems are light green or light blue, glabrous, and often glaucous; they are usually terete, although sometimes the stems are narrowly furrowed. Alternate leaves occur along the entire length of these stems, becoming gradually smaller in size as they ascend. These leaves are up to 6
0
0
Article
Miss Chen
12 hours ago
Miss Chen
Description: This herbaceous perennial plant is up to 2' tall, branching occasionally to create a bushy appearance. The hairy stems are green initially, but often become brown when the plant matures. The alternate leaves are up to 3" long and ¼" across toward the base of the plant, becoming less than 1" long and 1/8" (3 mm.) across near the flowering stems. They are linear in form and have smooth edges, often with a fine pubescence. The lower leaves usually shrivel and fall off by the time the compound flowers bloom during the fall. These flowers are very numerous and have a daisy-like appearance. Each compound flower is a little less than ½" across, and consists of numerous yellow disk florets, which are surrounded by about 12 white ray florets. There is no noticeable floral scent. There are numerous needle-like green bracts on the flowering stems, giving this plant a heath-like appearance. The little seeds have tufts of white hairs, and are distributed by the wind. The root system is rhizomatous. Cultivation: The preference is full sun and average to dry conditions. The soil can contain significant amounts of loam, clay, or gravelly material; alkaline soil is tolerated. This plant withstands drought. It often spreads vegetatively to form colonies, especially in open disturbed areas. Range & Habitat: The native Heath Aster is found in most counties of Illinois, but it is absent from some counties in the western and SE areas of the state (see Distribution Map). Overall, it is occasional to locally common. Habitats include mesic to dry black soil prairies, gravel prairies, dolomite prairies, hill prairies, savannas, openings in dry rocky forests, limestone glades, areas along roadsides and railroads, and pastures. It can be found in both high quality habitats and disturbed areas. Faunal Associations: A wide variety of insects are attracted to the flowers, including long-tongued bees, short-tongued bees, wasps, flies, butterflies, skippers, moths, beetles, and plant bugs. Bee visitors include honeybees, bumblebees, cuckoo bees, little carpenter bees, leaf-cutting bees, Halictid bees, plasterer bees, and Andrenid bees. Wasp visitors include thread-waisted wasps, bee wolves, spider wasps, sand wasps, paper wasps, Ichneumonid wasps, and Braconid wasps. Among the flies, are such visitors as bee flies, Syrphid flies, thick-headed flies, Tachinid flies, Muscid flies, and others. Various insects suck juices from the plant, including aphids, lace bugs, and plant bugs. The caterpillars of the butterfly Chlosyne nycteis (Silvery Checkerspot) feed on the foliage or flowers, as does the caterpillars of many moth species (see Moth Table). Wild Turkeys nibble on the seeds and foliage to a limited extent. Mammalian herbivores, including the White-Tailed Deer, Cottontail Rabbit, and various kinds of livestock, also feed on the tender growth of young plants occasionally, but are less likely to bother mature plants later in the year.
Photographic Location: The photographs were taken at Loda Cemetery Prairie in Iroquois County, Illinois. Comments: The Heath Aster has a wide distribution, and there is some variability in regards to its size and appearance across different locations. Sometimes it will hybridize with other species of asters, such as Symphyotrichum novae-angliae. The Heath Aster differs from other asters with small white flowerheads primarily by its short, narrow leaves (never more than 3" long and ¼" across). Also, its flowerheads tend to be smaller in size and they have fewer ray florets (about 12) than many other aster species. A scientific synonym of this plant is Aster ericoides.
Description: This herbaceous perennial plant is up to 2' tall, branching occasionally to create a bushy appearance. The hairy stems are green initially, but often become brown when the plant matures. The alternate leaves are up to 3
Description: This herbaceous perennial plant is up to 2' tall, branching occasionally to create a bushy appearance. The hairy stems are green initially, but often become brown when the plant matures. The alternate leaves are up to 3
0
0
Article
Miss Chen
12 hours ago
Miss Chen
Description: This herbaceous vine is a summer annual about 2-6' long that branches occasionally. Its slender stems can climb by twining about adjacent vegetation; they are finely pubescent. Alternate trifoliate leaves occur at intervals along the stems. Each leaflet is about 1" long and 1/3" (8 mm.) across; it is oblong-lanceolate, smooth along the margins, and finely pubescent on both the upper and lower sides. Each trifoliate leaf has a long petiole about 1-2" long that is also finely pubescent; there is a pair of small lanceolate bracts at the base of each petiole. No tendrils are produced by this vine. At the base of the middle to upper leaves, a slender flowering stalk (peduncle) about 1-4" long is occasionally produced. Each stalk terminates in a dense cluster of 1-6 small flowers; usually only one flower in a cluster is in bloom at a time. Each flower is up to ¼" long; it has a pale pink to purplish pink corolla. This corolla has a typical pea-like structure that consists of a standard, keel, and enclosing wings. However, the narrow keel and its wings are somewhat unusual in that they curve upward in front of the standard, instead of remaining straight. This characteristic distinguishes the Strophostyles genus from many other members of the Bean family. The short tubular calyx of each flower is light green to purple and finely pubescent; it has 4-5 shallow teeth along its rim and a pair of small bracts (bracteoles) at its base. The pedicel of each flower is very short. The blooming period occurs from late summer into the fall and lasts about 1-2 months. Each flower is short-lived and lacks any noticeable floral scent. A fertile flower is replaced by a cylindrical seedpod about 1–1½" long that has a beaked outer tip. This seedpod is initially green, but becomes dark brown with maturity; it is finely pubescent to conspicuously hairy. Each seedpod contains a few large seeds that are oblongoid in shape; they become dark, shiny, and hairless with maturity. The root system consists of a taproot. This vine spreads by reseeding itself. Cultivation: The preference is full or partial sun, mesic to dry conditions, and sandy soil. Conventional garden soil containing loam or clay-loam is tolerated if there is not too much competition from taller plants. The seeds may remain in the ground for several years before they germinate; scarification of the seeds can speed up this process. The roots add nitrogen to the soil by forming a symbiotic association with rhizobial bacteria. Range & Habitat: The native Small Fuzzy Bean occurs occasionally in southern Illinois and in sandy areas of central and northern Illinois, otherwise it is uncommon or absent (see Distribution Map). Habitats include open rocky woodlands, open sandy woodlands, sandy savannas, glades, thickets, sand prairies, and sandy fields. This species is usually found in rather dry areas with sparse ground vegetation. Occasional wildfires are probably beneficial in removing competition from woody vegetation and other tall plants.
Faunal Associations: The nectar of the flowers occasionally attracts bees, including bumblebees, Leaf-Cutting bees (Megachile spp.), and Dagger bees (Calliopsis spp.). The extra-floral nectaries attract ants and Halictid bees. The caterpillars of the following skippers occasionally feed on the foliage of Strophostyles spp. (Fuzzy Beans): Epargyreus clarus (Silver-Spotted Skipper), Thorybes bathyllus (Southern Cloudywing), and Urbanus proteus (Long-tailed Skipper). Some leaf beetles feed on the foliage as well, including Cerotoma trifurcata (Bean Leaf Beetle), Sumitrosis ancoroides, and Sumitrosis pallescens; the larvae of the latter two species are leaf-miners. The Mourning Dove and Bobwhite Quail eat the seeds of Fuzzy Beans, while the foliage is readily eaten by cattle, deer, and other mammalian herbivores. Photographic Location: The wildflower garden of the webmaster in Urbana, Illinois. The dainty foliage of Aster oblongifolius (Aromatic Aster) can be observed in the background of the photographed trifoliate leaf.
Comments: This rather ordinary-looking vine has small flowers that are short-lived. Other common names for this species are Small Wild Bean and Small Woolly Bean. Two other vines in this genus that occur in Illinois are the following: Strophostyles helvola (Large Fuzzy Bean) and Strophostyles umbellata (Perennial Fuzzy Bean). As the common name implies, Large Fuzzy Bean is a more robust vine with longer stems and larger leaves; the leaves of this species are sometimes lobed. It is also a summer annual, but prefers more moist habitats. Similarly, the Perennial Fuzzy Bean is more robust with longer stems and larger leaves; this perennial vine is restricted to southern Illinois. These latter two species have slightly larger flowers (greater than ¼" in length) than the Small Fuzzy Bean (up to ¼" in length); they all have keels on their flowers that curve upward and their seedpods are finely pubescent to conspicuously hairy. While the mature seeds of Small Fuzzy Bean are shiny and hairless, the mature seeds of Large Fuzzy Bean and Perennial Fuzzy Bean are usually mealy-pubescent.
Description: This herbaceous vine is a summer annual about 2-6' long that branches occasionally. Its slender stems can climb by twining about adjacent vegetation; they are finely pubescent. Alternate trifoliate leaves occur at intervals along the stems. Each leaflet is about 1
Description: This herbaceous vine is a summer annual about 2-6' long that branches occasionally. Its slender stems can climb by twining about adjacent vegetation; they are finely pubescent. Alternate trifoliate leaves occur at intervals along the stems. Each leaflet is about 1
Description: This herbaceous vine is a summer annual about 2-6' long that branches occasionally. Its slender stems can climb by twining about adjacent vegetation; they are finely pubescent. Alternate trifoliate leaves occur at intervals along the stems. Each leaflet is about 1
0
0
Article
Miss Chen
12 hours ago
Miss Chen
Description: This herbaceous perennial plant is ½–2½' tall and usually unbranched. The central stem is 4-angled, usually with scattered hairs along the ridges, but not the sides (see Stem Photo). The opposite leaves are up to 3½" long and 1"Whorls of Flowers across. They are usually lanceolate or narrowly ovate, with serrate or crenate margins. The petioles of the lower leaves are about ¼" or slightly longer, while the upper leaves have shorter petioles or are sessile. Both the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves are hairless or nearly so – if hairs are present, they are most likely to occur along the lower mid-vein of the leaves. The central stem terminates in a spike-like inflorescence that has whorls of flowers at intervals along its length. This inflorescence can vary from 2-8" in length. The tubular corolla of each flower is about 1/3" long and divided into 2 lips. The hairy upper lip functions as a protective hood, while the lower lip is divided into 3 lobes (a central lobe and two smaller side lobes), which functions as a landing pad for visiting insects. The flowers are light pink or white, often with rosy pink splotches within the throat. The green calyx is hairless and at least half as long as the tube of the corolla (not including the lips). It is divided into 5 triangular segments that curl outward as the ovaries mature. The blooming period occurs during the summer and lasts about 1-2 months. Each flower is replaced by 4 black nutlets that are oblong in shape. The root system consists of a taproot and rhizomes. This plant often forms vegetative colonies, like many other members of the Mint family. Cultivation: The preference is partial sun and moist conditions. This plant also tolerates light shade and full sun. The soil should contain sufficient organic material to retain moisture. If this plant dries out, the leaves have a tendency to turn yellow or brown, and the entire plant may die. Range & Habitat: Smooth Hedge Nettle occurs in most counties of Illinois (see Distribution Map), where it is native. This plant is occasional in southern and central Illinois, but uncommon or absent in the northern counties. Habitats include ravines in floodplain forests, moist meadows along rivers or woodlands, thickets, and various kinds of wetlands, including swamps, seeps, and ditches. It can be found in either high quality habitats or rather degraded sites. Faunal Associations: Primarily long-tongued bees pollinate the flowers, where they seek nectar primarily. Short-tongued bees sometimes collect pollen, while flower flies feed on the pollen, but they are not very effective pollinators. Occasionally butterflies or skippers may visit the flowers, but they aren't very effective at pollinating the flowers either. The bitter foliage of this and other Stachys spp. is not often consumed by mammalian herbivores.
Photographic Location: A swampy area of Busey Woods in Urbana, Illinois. Comments: This is a typical member of the Mint family. It is easy to overlook, because this Hedge Nettle sp. tends to be rather small-sized and non-descript, almost looking like a lanky Prunella vulgaris (Self-Heal) at first glance. Identifying Smooth Hedge Nettle correctly can be rather tricky, so here are some of the key features to look for: 1) The calyx is hairless; 2) the petioles of the lower leaves are usually ¼" or longer, and 3) there are hairs on the ridges of the 4-angled central stem, but not on the sides. There is also a hairy form of this plant, referred to as Stachys tenuifolia hispida by some authorities and Stachys hispida by others, that also occurs in Illinois. It has foliage that is more hairy, and there are also some hairs along the edges of the calyx of each flower. However, it is similar to Smooth Hedge Nettle in that the central stem has hairs along the ridges, but not on the sides.
Description: This herbaceous perennial plant is ½–2½' tall and usually unbranched. The central stem is 4-angled, usually with scattered hairs along the ridges, but not the sides (see Stem Photo). The opposite leaves are up to 3½
Description: This herbaceous perennial plant is ½–2½' tall and usually unbranched. The central stem is 4-angled, usually with scattered hairs along the ridges, but not the sides (see Stem Photo). The opposite leaves are up to 3½
0
0
Article
Miss Chen
12 hours ago
Miss Chen
Description: This perennial plant is about 1½-3' tall and either unbranched or sparingly so. The 4-angled central stem is light green to dark purple and covered with fine hairs on all sides. The opposite leaves are up to 4" long and 1¾" across. They are lanceolate-oblong to ovate-oblong in shape, finely serrated along their margins, and either sessile against the stem or with short petioles (less than 1/3" or 8 mm. in length). The upper leaf surface is medium to dark green and finely short-hairy, while the lower surface is light green and finely hairy, especially along the lower sides of major veins. The foliage has an unpleasant bitter smell. The central stem terminates in a spike of flowers about 4-8" long. This spike consists of about 4-12 whorls of flowers, each whorl having several flowers. Each flower is about ½" long, consisting of a short-tubular corolla with 2 lips, a short-tubular calyx with 5 narrow triangular teeth, and the inserted reproductive organs. The corolla is white to light pink with splotches of rosy pink. The upper lip of the corolla is undivided and hairy along its upper surface, while the lower lip is divided into 3 lobes (a central lobe and 2 smaller side lobes). The calyx is green to purplish green and finely hairy. The calyx is green or purplish green; its teeth extend to more than one-half of the length of the corolla tube (excluding the length of the lips). The central stalk of the floral spike is green to dark purple and covered with fine hairs on all sides. The blooming period occurs during the summer and lasts about 1-2 months. Sometimes the flowers have a mild fragrance. After the blooming period, the flowers are replaced by open seed capsules; each capsule contains 4 small nutlets. The root system is rhizomatous and tuberous. Hairy Hedge Nettle often forms clonal colonies of varying size. Cultivation: The preference is full sun to light shade, moist conditions, and soil that is loamy or sandy. The foliage is rarely bothered by either disease or insects. Range & Habitat: The native Hairy Hedge Nettle occurs primarily in central and northern Illinois, where it is occasional. In southern Illinois, it is either absent or uncommon (see Distribution Map). Habitats include moist prairies, edges of marshes, moist meadows in wooded areas, borders of bottomland woodlands, soggy thickets, prairie swales, roadside ditches, edges of fields, and fence rows. Hairy Hedge Nettle can occur in either sandy or non-sandy habitats that are variable in their level of disturbance.
Faunal Associations: The flowers are visited by nectar-seeking bees primarily, including bumblebees, leaf-cutting bees (Megachile spp.), digger bees (Melissodes spp.), little carpenter bees (Ceratina spp.), and Anthophorid bees (Anthophora spp.). Sometimes the flowers are visited by butterflies, skippers, and moths, but they are not very effective at cross-pollination. Small bees also visit the flowers to collect pollen. The seeds of Stachys spp. (Hedge Nettles) and other members of the Mint family are eaten by Sehirus cinctus (White-Margined Burrower Bug). Because the foliage is bitter and hairy, it is not favored as a food source by mammalian herbivores. Photographic Location: The photograph was taken in an overgrown moist area between an abandoned railroad and a roadside in Champaign County, Illinois.
Comments: This plant has an unsettled taxonomic history. At the present time, I prefer to use the scientific name Stachys palustris arenicola from the Field Guide to Indiana Wildflowers (2000) by Kay Yatskievych. Older authorities, such as A. G. Jones or Britton & Brown, called this species Stachys arenicola. In contrast, Mohlenbrock (1986, 2002) probably refers to this species as a variety of Stachys palustris or Stachys pilosa. Hairy Hedge Nettle can be distinguished from other Stachys spp. (Hedge Nettles) by the presence of fine hairs on all 4 sides of its central stem, the general hairiness of its leaves, the absence of petioles exceeding 1/3" (8 mm.) in length, the length of its toothed calyx in relation to the corolla tube (exceeding one-half of its length), and the shape of its calyx teeth. All of the Hedge Nettles differ from the similar Teucrium canadense (American Germander) by having flowers with well-defined upper lips.
Description: This perennial plant is about 1½-3' tall and either unbranched or sparingly so. The 4-angled central stem is light green to dark purple and covered with fine hairs on all sides. The opposite leaves are up to 4
Description: This perennial plant is about 1½-3' tall and either unbranched or sparingly so. The 4-angled central stem is light green to dark purple and covered with fine hairs on all sides. The opposite leaves are up to 4
Description: This perennial plant is about 1½-3' tall and either unbranched or sparingly so. The 4-angled central stem is light green to dark purple and covered with fine hairs on all sides. The opposite leaves are up to 4
0
0
Article
Miss Chen
12 hours ago
Miss Chen

生长在赤道附近热带地区的箭毒木,它的树皮和叶子中有一种白色的乳汁,毒性非常厉害。这种乳汁如果进入眼中,眼睛顿时失明。它的树枝燃烧时放出的烟气,熏入眼中,也会造成失明,用这种树汁制成的毒箭,射中野兽,几秒钟之内即可致死。这种植物又叫“见血封喉”,在我国海南、云南和广西等地也有少量分布,目前,已被列为国家三级重点保护植物。 见血封喉多生于热带季雨林、雨林区域,热量丰富,长夏无冬,冬季寒潮影响微弱,年平均温多为21-24℃,最冷月平均温在13-17℃以上,极端最低温在0-5℃以上,大寒潮南侵年份桂西南至粤西可出现短暂0℃以下低温,年降雨量1200-2000毫米,于湿季分明或不太分明,空气湿度较大;年平均相对湿度在80%以上。在花岗岩、页岩、砂岩等酸性基岩和第四纪红土上,土壤为砖红壤或示红壤,pH值6.8-7.7。见血封喉可组成季节性雨林上层巨树,常挺拔于主林冠之上。根系发达,抗风力强,风灾频繁的滨海台地,孤立木也不易受风倒,但生长往往较矮。
据传说,在云南省西双版纳最早发现箭毒木汁液含有剧毒的是一位傣族猎人。有一次,这位猎人在狩猎时被一只硕大的狗熊紧逼而被迫爬上一棵大树,可狗熊仍不放过他,紧追不舍,在走投无路、生死存亡的紧要关头,这位猎人急中生智,折断一根树枝刺向正往树上爬的狗熊,结果奇迹突然发生了,狗熊立即落地而死。从那以后,西双版纳的猎人就学会了把箭毒木的汁液涂于箭头用于狩猎。关于见血封喉树,傣族民间还有一个优美的传说。据说,千百年前西双版纳这块土地上,曾经发生过一次洪荒。洪荒过后,准备重建家园的人们上山伐木,在林间碰上了77只猛虎。林中猛虎伤人无数,猎户无法捕杀。有个叫波洪沙的男子,为除虎患,只好服下许多毒药,血浸入地下以后,育出一棵树来。由于那树吸收了波洪沙的毒血,树枝中便含有剧毒。这种含有剧毒的枝,用形象生动的传说告诉后人,见血封喉是种毒木,它的树枝可使凶兽毙命。
  生长在赤道附近热带地区的箭毒木,它的树皮和叶子中有一种白色的乳汁,毒性非常厉害。这种乳汁如果进入眼中,眼睛顿时失明。它的树枝燃烧时放出的烟气,熏入眼中,也会造成失明,用这种树汁制成的毒箭,射中野兽,几秒钟之内即可致死。这种植物又叫“见血封喉”,在我国海南、云南和广西等地也有少量分布,目前,已被列为国家三级重点保护植物。

见血封喉多生于热带季雨林、雨林区域,热量丰富,长夏无冬,冬季寒潮影响微弱,年平均温多为21-24℃,最冷月平均温在13-17℃以上,极端最低温在0-5℃以上,大寒潮南侵年份桂西南至粤西可出现短暂0℃以下低温,年降雨量1200-2000毫米,于湿季分明或不太分明,空气湿度较大;年平均相对湿度在80%以上。在花岗岩、页岩、砂岩等酸性基岩和第四纪红土上,土壤为砖红壤或示红壤,pH值6.8-7.7。见血封喉可组成季节性雨林上层巨树,常挺拔于主林冠之上。根系发达,抗风力强,风灾频繁的滨海台地,孤立木也不易受风倒,但生长往往较矮。
  据传说,在云南省西双版纳最早发现箭毒木汁液含有剧毒的是一位傣族猎人。有一次,这位猎人在狩猎时被一只硕大的狗熊紧逼而被迫爬上一棵大树,可狗熊仍不放过他,紧追不舍,在走投无路、生死存亡的紧要关头,这位猎人急中生智,折断一根树枝刺向正往树上爬的狗熊,结果奇迹突然发生了,狗熊立即落地而死。从那以后,西双版纳的猎人就学会了把箭毒木的汁液涂于箭头用于狩猎。关于见血封喉树,傣族民间还有一个优美的传说。据说,千百年前西双版纳这块土地上,曾经发生过一次洪荒。洪荒过后,准备重建家园的人们上山伐木,在林间碰上了77只猛虎。林中猛虎伤人无数,猎户无法捕杀。有个叫波洪沙的男子,为除虎患,只好服下许多毒药,血浸入地下以后,育出一棵树来。由于那树吸收了波洪沙的毒血,树枝中便含有剧毒。这种含有剧毒的枝,用形象生动的传说告诉后人,见血封喉是种毒木,它的树枝可使凶兽毙命。
  生长在赤道附近热带地区的箭毒木,它的树皮和叶子中有一种白色的乳汁,毒性非常厉害。这种乳汁如果进入眼中,眼睛顿时失明。它的树枝燃烧时放出的烟气,熏入眼中,也会造成失明,用这种树汁制成的毒箭,射中野兽,几秒钟之内即可致死。这种植物又叫“见血封喉”,在我国海南、云南和广西等地也有少量分布,目前,已被列为国家三级重点保护植物。

见血封喉多生于热带季雨林、雨林区域,热量丰富,长夏无冬,冬季寒潮影响微弱,年平均温多为21-24℃,最冷月平均温在13-17℃以上,极端最低温在0-5℃以上,大寒潮南侵年份桂西南至粤西可出现短暂0℃以下低温,年降雨量1200-2000毫米,于湿季分明或不太分明,空气湿度较大;年平均相对湿度在80%以上。在花岗岩、页岩、砂岩等酸性基岩和第四纪红土上,土壤为砖红壤或示红壤,pH值6.8-7.7。见血封喉可组成季节性雨林上层巨树,常挺拔于主林冠之上。根系发达,抗风力强,风灾频繁的滨海台地,孤立木也不易受风倒,但生长往往较矮。
  据传说,在云南省西双版纳最早发现箭毒木汁液含有剧毒的是一位傣族猎人。有一次,这位猎人在狩猎时被一只硕大的狗熊紧逼而被迫爬上一棵大树,可狗熊仍不放过他,紧追不舍,在走投无路、生死存亡的紧要关头,这位猎人急中生智,折断一根树枝刺向正往树上爬的狗熊,结果奇迹突然发生了,狗熊立即落地而死。从那以后,西双版纳的猎人就学会了把箭毒木的汁液涂于箭头用于狩猎。关于见血封喉树,傣族民间还有一个优美的传说。据说,千百年前西双版纳这块土地上,曾经发生过一次洪荒。洪荒过后,准备重建家园的人们上山伐木,在林间碰上了77只猛虎。林中猛虎伤人无数,猎户无法捕杀。有个叫波洪沙的男子,为除虎患,只好服下许多毒药,血浸入地下以后,育出一棵树来。由于那树吸收了波洪沙的毒血,树枝中便含有剧毒。这种含有剧毒的枝,用形象生动的传说告诉后人,见血封喉是种毒木,它的树枝可使凶兽毙命。
  生长在赤道附近热带地区的箭毒木,它的树皮和叶子中有一种白色的乳汁,毒性非常厉害。这种乳汁如果进入眼中,眼睛顿时失明。它的树枝燃烧时放出的烟气,熏入眼中,也会造成失明,用这种树汁制成的毒箭,射中野兽,几秒钟之内即可致死。这种植物又叫“见血封喉”,在我国海南、云南和广西等地也有少量分布,目前,已被列为国家三级重点保护植物。

见血封喉多生于热带季雨林、雨林区域,热量丰富,长夏无冬,冬季寒潮影响微弱,年平均温多为21-24℃,最冷月平均温在13-17℃以上,极端最低温在0-5℃以上,大寒潮南侵年份桂西南至粤西可出现短暂0℃以下低温,年降雨量1200-2000毫米,于湿季分明或不太分明,空气湿度较大;年平均相对湿度在80%以上。在花岗岩、页岩、砂岩等酸性基岩和第四纪红土上,土壤为砖红壤或示红壤,pH值6.8-7.7。见血封喉可组成季节性雨林上层巨树,常挺拔于主林冠之上。根系发达,抗风力强,风灾频繁的滨海台地,孤立木也不易受风倒,但生长往往较矮。
  据传说,在云南省西双版纳最早发现箭毒木汁液含有剧毒的是一位傣族猎人。有一次,这位猎人在狩猎时被一只硕大的狗熊紧逼而被迫爬上一棵大树,可狗熊仍不放过他,紧追不舍,在走投无路、生死存亡的紧要关头,这位猎人急中生智,折断一根树枝刺向正往树上爬的狗熊,结果奇迹突然发生了,狗熊立即落地而死。从那以后,西双版纳的猎人就学会了把箭毒木的汁液涂于箭头用于狩猎。关于见血封喉树,傣族民间还有一个优美的传说。据说,千百年前西双版纳这块土地上,曾经发生过一次洪荒。洪荒过后,准备重建家园的人们上山伐木,在林间碰上了77只猛虎。林中猛虎伤人无数,猎户无法捕杀。有个叫波洪沙的男子,为除虎患,只好服下许多毒药,血浸入地下以后,育出一棵树来。由于那树吸收了波洪沙的毒血,树枝中便含有剧毒。这种含有剧毒的枝,用形象生动的传说告诉后人,见血封喉是种毒木,它的树枝可使凶兽毙命。
0
0
Article
Miss Chen
12 hours ago
Miss Chen

在非洲稀树干草原生长的属于木棉科的猴面包树是世界上最粗的树之一,它的直径可达12米,但树高仅十余米。而在西西里岛上的一株大栗树,树干周长55米,折合直径约17m,另一株生长在东非的波巴布树,直径16m,要30个成年人才能合围。 猴面包树是喜温的热带树种,能忍受最高平均温度40℃及以上,极端最低温度0℃,霜冻对该树的影响极大,自然分布区的年平均温度20~30℃,该树耐旱力极强,适生区的年平均降水量300~800mm,湿热气候条件下或降水量1000mm以上生长较差。常见海拔高度450~600m,但在埃塞俄比亚及其边缘分布区海拔为1000~1500m。 适合各种类型土壤,从粘质土,砂土到各种土壤,但以石质壤土和砖红壤为最常见,在酸碱性土壤、沙壤土以及排水良好的肥沃土壤上,能够很好的生长。对于干旱和火灾有极强的抵御力,如在旱季通常通过落叶降低水分的消耗,貌似橡皮的树皮火灾危害后即可再生。所以猴面包树不宜生长在有霜冻和具有热带雨林气候特征的湿热地区。
猴面包树还是植物界的老寿星之一,即使在热带草原那种干旱的恶劣环境中,其寿命仍可达5000年左右。据有关资料记载,18世纪,法国著名的植物学家阿当松在非洲见到一些猴面包树,其中最老的一棵已活了5500年。由于当地民间传说猴面包树是“圣树”,因此受到人们的保护。 不管长在哪儿的猴面包树,树干虽然都很粗,猴面包树为了能够顺利度过旱季,木质却非常疏松,可谓外强中干、表硬里软。这种木质最利于储水,在雨季时,它就利用自己粗大的身躯和松软的木质代替根系,大量吸收并贮存水分。它的木质部像多孔的海绵,里面含有大量的水分。每当旱季来临,为了减少水分蒸发,它会迅速脱光身上所有的叶子。待到干旱季节慢慢享用。当它吸饱了水分,便会长出叶子,开出很大的白色花。据说,它能贮几千公斤甚至更多的水,简直可以称为荒原的贮水塔了。
  在非洲稀树干草原生长的属于木棉科的猴面包树是世界上最粗的树之一,它的直径可达12米,但树高仅十余米。而在西西里岛上的一株大栗树,树干周长55米,折合直径约17m,另一株生长在东非的波巴布树,直径16m,要30个成年人才能合围。

猴面包树是喜温的热带树种,能忍受最高平均温度40℃及以上,极端最低温度0℃,霜冻对该树的影响极大,自然分布区的年平均温度20~30℃,该树耐旱力极强,适生区的年平均降水量300~800mm,湿热气候条件下或降水量1000mm以上生长较差。常见海拔高度450~600m,但在埃塞俄比亚及其边缘分布区海拔为1000~1500m。

适合各种类型土壤,从粘质土,砂土到各种土壤,但以石质壤土和砖红壤为最常见,在酸碱性土壤、沙壤土以及排水良好的肥沃土壤上,能够很好的生长。对于干旱和火灾有极强的抵御力,如在旱季通常通过落叶降低水分的消耗,貌似橡皮的树皮火灾危害后即可再生。所以猴面包树不宜生长在有霜冻和具有热带雨林气候特征的湿热地区。
  猴面包树还是植物界的老寿星之一,即使在热带草原那种干旱的恶劣环境中,其寿命仍可达5000年左右。据有关资料记载,18世纪,法国著名的植物学家阿当松在非洲见到一些猴面包树,其中最老的一棵已活了5500年。由于当地民间传说猴面包树是“圣树”,因此受到人们的保护。

不管长在哪儿的猴面包树,树干虽然都很粗,猴面包树为了能够顺利度过旱季,木质却非常疏松,可谓外强中干、表硬里软。这种木质最利于储水,在雨季时,它就利用自己粗大的身躯和松软的木质代替根系,大量吸收并贮存水分。它的木质部像多孔的海绵,里面含有大量的水分。每当旱季来临,为了减少水分蒸发,它会迅速脱光身上所有的叶子。待到干旱季节慢慢享用。当它吸饱了水分,便会长出叶子,开出很大的白色花。据说,它能贮几千公斤甚至更多的水,简直可以称为荒原的贮水塔了。
  在非洲稀树干草原生长的属于木棉科的猴面包树是世界上最粗的树之一,它的直径可达12米,但树高仅十余米。而在西西里岛上的一株大栗树,树干周长55米,折合直径约17m,另一株生长在东非的波巴布树,直径16m,要30个成年人才能合围。

猴面包树是喜温的热带树种,能忍受最高平均温度40℃及以上,极端最低温度0℃,霜冻对该树的影响极大,自然分布区的年平均温度20~30℃,该树耐旱力极强,适生区的年平均降水量300~800mm,湿热气候条件下或降水量1000mm以上生长较差。常见海拔高度450~600m,但在埃塞俄比亚及其边缘分布区海拔为1000~1500m。

适合各种类型土壤,从粘质土,砂土到各种土壤,但以石质壤土和砖红壤为最常见,在酸碱性土壤、沙壤土以及排水良好的肥沃土壤上,能够很好的生长。对于干旱和火灾有极强的抵御力,如在旱季通常通过落叶降低水分的消耗,貌似橡皮的树皮火灾危害后即可再生。所以猴面包树不宜生长在有霜冻和具有热带雨林气候特征的湿热地区。
  猴面包树还是植物界的老寿星之一,即使在热带草原那种干旱的恶劣环境中,其寿命仍可达5000年左右。据有关资料记载,18世纪,法国著名的植物学家阿当松在非洲见到一些猴面包树,其中最老的一棵已活了5500年。由于当地民间传说猴面包树是“圣树”,因此受到人们的保护。

不管长在哪儿的猴面包树,树干虽然都很粗,猴面包树为了能够顺利度过旱季,木质却非常疏松,可谓外强中干、表硬里软。这种木质最利于储水,在雨季时,它就利用自己粗大的身躯和松软的木质代替根系,大量吸收并贮存水分。它的木质部像多孔的海绵,里面含有大量的水分。每当旱季来临,为了减少水分蒸发,它会迅速脱光身上所有的叶子。待到干旱季节慢慢享用。当它吸饱了水分,便会长出叶子,开出很大的白色花。据说,它能贮几千公斤甚至更多的水,简直可以称为荒原的贮水塔了。
  在非洲稀树干草原生长的属于木棉科的猴面包树是世界上最粗的树之一,它的直径可达12米,但树高仅十余米。而在西西里岛上的一株大栗树,树干周长55米,折合直径约17m,另一株生长在东非的波巴布树,直径16m,要30个成年人才能合围。

猴面包树是喜温的热带树种,能忍受最高平均温度40℃及以上,极端最低温度0℃,霜冻对该树的影响极大,自然分布区的年平均温度20~30℃,该树耐旱力极强,适生区的年平均降水量300~800mm,湿热气候条件下或降水量1000mm以上生长较差。常见海拔高度450~600m,但在埃塞俄比亚及其边缘分布区海拔为1000~1500m。

适合各种类型土壤,从粘质土,砂土到各种土壤,但以石质壤土和砖红壤为最常见,在酸碱性土壤、沙壤土以及排水良好的肥沃土壤上,能够很好的生长。对于干旱和火灾有极强的抵御力,如在旱季通常通过落叶降低水分的消耗,貌似橡皮的树皮火灾危害后即可再生。所以猴面包树不宜生长在有霜冻和具有热带雨林气候特征的湿热地区。
  猴面包树还是植物界的老寿星之一,即使在热带草原那种干旱的恶劣环境中,其寿命仍可达5000年左右。据有关资料记载,18世纪,法国著名的植物学家阿当松在非洲见到一些猴面包树,其中最老的一棵已活了5500年。由于当地民间传说猴面包树是“圣树”,因此受到人们的保护。

不管长在哪儿的猴面包树,树干虽然都很粗,猴面包树为了能够顺利度过旱季,木质却非常疏松,可谓外强中干、表硬里软。这种木质最利于储水,在雨季时,它就利用自己粗大的身躯和松软的木质代替根系,大量吸收并贮存水分。它的木质部像多孔的海绵,里面含有大量的水分。每当旱季来临,为了减少水分蒸发,它会迅速脱光身上所有的叶子。待到干旱季节慢慢享用。当它吸饱了水分,便会长出叶子,开出很大的白色花。据说,它能贮几千公斤甚至更多的水,简直可以称为荒原的贮水塔了。
0
0
Article
Miss Chen
12 hours ago
Miss Chen

世界上最高的树要算,属于桃金娘科桉属,共有600多种,其中有一株杏仁桉高156米,是树高之冠。 杏仁桉又叫杏仁香桉,属桃金娘科,生长在大洋洲的半干旱地区。它的树干没有什么枝杈,笔直向上,逐渐变细,到了顶端,才生长出枝叶。这种树形有利于避免风害。 如果举办世界树木界高度竞赛的话,那只有澳洲的杏仁桉树,才有资格得冠军。 杏仁桉树一般都高达100米,其中有一株高达156米,树干直插云霄,有五十层楼那样高。在人类已测量过的树木中,它是最高的一株。鸟在树顶上歌唱,在树下听起来,就像蚊子的嗡嗡声一样。常言说“大树底下好乘凉”,可是在高大的杏仁桉树下却几乎没有阴影。因为它的树叶细长弯曲,而且侧面朝上,叶面与日光投射的方向平行,犹如垂挂在树杈上一样,阳光都从树叶的缝隙处倾泄了下来。
杏仁桉树基部周围长达30米。这样高大的树木,地下的根也扎得又深又广,便于吸收足够的水分,防止大风把树刮倒。树干笔直,向上则明显变细,枝和叶密集生在树的顶端。叶子长势颇奇,一般树叶是表面朝天,而它的叶是侧面朝天,像挂在树枝上一样,与阳光的投射方向平行。这种特征是为了适应气候干燥、阳光强烈的环境,减少阳光直射面积,防止水分过分蒸发。 杏仁桉树干笔直、树基粗大,树根扎得又深又广,吸水量特别大,有“抽水机”的雅号。它吸的水多,蒸发的水也多。据说它每年可以蒸发掉175吨的水,真是惊人。人们往往把它种在沼泽地区,利用它“抽水”的特性来吸干沼泽,开垦出新的土地。而后,因为沼泽地变成了干燥地,蚊子没有了繁衍的环境,从而防止了疟病传播,所以被当地人称为“防疟树”。 杏仁桉虽然高大,但种子却很小,每粒约为1-2毫米,20粒种子才有一粒米大。可是它生长极快,是世界上最速生的树种之一,五六年就能长成10多米高,胸径40多厘米的大树。 其他“植物世界的吉尼斯纪录”:最古老的树——银杏(2.7亿年前就开始出现);最高的树——杏仁桉(澳大利亚草原,最高达156米);最粗的树——百骑大栗树(西西里岛,直径可达17.5米。周长55米);最轻的树——轻木(盛产厄瓜多尔,比重只有0.1-0.25);最稀有的树——普陀鹅耳枥(普陀岛上,全世界仅有一株);树冠最大的树——榕树(广东天马河边,树冠覆盖约15亩,成为“小鸟天堂”)。
  世界上最高的树要算,属于桃金娘科桉属,共有600多种,其中有一株杏仁桉高156米,是树高之冠。

杏仁桉又叫杏仁香桉,属桃金娘科,生长在大洋洲的半干旱地区。它的树干没有什么枝杈,笔直向上,逐渐变细,到了顶端,才生长出枝叶。这种树形有利于避免风害。

如果举办世界树木界高度竞赛的话,那只有澳洲的杏仁桉树,才有资格得冠军。

杏仁桉树一般都高达100米,其中有一株高达156米,树干直插云霄,有五十层楼那样高。在人类已测量过的树木中,它是最高的一株。鸟在树顶上歌唱,在树下听起来,就像蚊子的嗡嗡声一样。常言说“大树底下好乘凉”,可是在高大的杏仁桉树下却几乎没有阴影。因为它的树叶细长弯曲,而且侧面朝上,叶面与日光投射的方向平行,犹如垂挂在树杈上一样,阳光都从树叶的缝隙处倾泄了下来。
  杏仁桉树基部周围长达30米。这样高大的树木,地下的根也扎得又深又广,便于吸收足够的水分,防止大风把树刮倒。树干笔直,向上则明显变细,枝和叶密集生在树的顶端。叶子长势颇奇,一般树叶是表面朝天,而它的叶是侧面朝天,像挂在树枝上一样,与阳光的投射方向平行。这种特征是为了适应气候干燥、阳光强烈的环境,减少阳光直射面积,防止水分过分蒸发。

杏仁桉树干笔直、树基粗大,树根扎得又深又广,吸水量特别大,有“抽水机”的雅号。它吸的水多,蒸发的水也多。据说它每年可以蒸发掉175吨的水,真是惊人。人们往往把它种在沼泽地区,利用它“抽水”的特性来吸干沼泽,开垦出新的土地。而后,因为沼泽地变成了干燥地,蚊子没有了繁衍的环境,从而防止了疟病传播,所以被当地人称为“防疟树”。
杏仁桉虽然高大,但种子却很小,每粒约为1-2毫米,20粒种子才有一粒米大。可是它生长极快,是世界上最速生的树种之一,五六年就能长成10多米高,胸径40多厘米的大树。
其他“植物世界的吉尼斯纪录”:最古老的树——银杏(2.7亿年前就开始出现);最高的树——杏仁桉(澳大利亚草原,最高达156米);最粗的树——百骑大栗树(西西里岛,直径可达17.5米。周长55米);最轻的树——轻木(盛产厄瓜多尔,比重只有0.1-0.25);最稀有的树——普陀鹅耳枥(普陀岛上,全世界仅有一株);树冠最大的树——榕树(广东天马河边,树冠覆盖约15亩,成为“小鸟天堂”)。
  世界上最高的树要算,属于桃金娘科桉属,共有600多种,其中有一株杏仁桉高156米,是树高之冠。

杏仁桉又叫杏仁香桉,属桃金娘科,生长在大洋洲的半干旱地区。它的树干没有什么枝杈,笔直向上,逐渐变细,到了顶端,才生长出枝叶。这种树形有利于避免风害。

如果举办世界树木界高度竞赛的话,那只有澳洲的杏仁桉树,才有资格得冠军。

杏仁桉树一般都高达100米,其中有一株高达156米,树干直插云霄,有五十层楼那样高。在人类已测量过的树木中,它是最高的一株。鸟在树顶上歌唱,在树下听起来,就像蚊子的嗡嗡声一样。常言说“大树底下好乘凉”,可是在高大的杏仁桉树下却几乎没有阴影。因为它的树叶细长弯曲,而且侧面朝上,叶面与日光投射的方向平行,犹如垂挂在树杈上一样,阳光都从树叶的缝隙处倾泄了下来。
  杏仁桉树基部周围长达30米。这样高大的树木,地下的根也扎得又深又广,便于吸收足够的水分,防止大风把树刮倒。树干笔直,向上则明显变细,枝和叶密集生在树的顶端。叶子长势颇奇,一般树叶是表面朝天,而它的叶是侧面朝天,像挂在树枝上一样,与阳光的投射方向平行。这种特征是为了适应气候干燥、阳光强烈的环境,减少阳光直射面积,防止水分过分蒸发。

杏仁桉树干笔直、树基粗大,树根扎得又深又广,吸水量特别大,有“抽水机”的雅号。它吸的水多,蒸发的水也多。据说它每年可以蒸发掉175吨的水,真是惊人。人们往往把它种在沼泽地区,利用它“抽水”的特性来吸干沼泽,开垦出新的土地。而后,因为沼泽地变成了干燥地,蚊子没有了繁衍的环境,从而防止了疟病传播,所以被当地人称为“防疟树”。
杏仁桉虽然高大,但种子却很小,每粒约为1-2毫米,20粒种子才有一粒米大。可是它生长极快,是世界上最速生的树种之一,五六年就能长成10多米高,胸径40多厘米的大树。
其他“植物世界的吉尼斯纪录”:最古老的树——银杏(2.7亿年前就开始出现);最高的树——杏仁桉(澳大利亚草原,最高达156米);最粗的树——百骑大栗树(西西里岛,直径可达17.5米。周长55米);最轻的树——轻木(盛产厄瓜多尔,比重只有0.1-0.25);最稀有的树——普陀鹅耳枥(普陀岛上,全世界仅有一株);树冠最大的树——榕树(广东天马河边,树冠覆盖约15亩,成为“小鸟天堂”)。
  世界上最高的树要算,属于桃金娘科桉属,共有600多种,其中有一株杏仁桉高156米,是树高之冠。

杏仁桉又叫杏仁香桉,属桃金娘科,生长在大洋洲的半干旱地区。它的树干没有什么枝杈,笔直向上,逐渐变细,到了顶端,才生长出枝叶。这种树形有利于避免风害。

如果举办世界树木界高度竞赛的话,那只有澳洲的杏仁桉树,才有资格得冠军。

杏仁桉树一般都高达100米,其中有一株高达156米,树干直插云霄,有五十层楼那样高。在人类已测量过的树木中,它是最高的一株。鸟在树顶上歌唱,在树下听起来,就像蚊子的嗡嗡声一样。常言说“大树底下好乘凉”,可是在高大的杏仁桉树下却几乎没有阴影。因为它的树叶细长弯曲,而且侧面朝上,叶面与日光投射的方向平行,犹如垂挂在树杈上一样,阳光都从树叶的缝隙处倾泄了下来。
  杏仁桉树基部周围长达30米。这样高大的树木,地下的根也扎得又深又广,便于吸收足够的水分,防止大风把树刮倒。树干笔直,向上则明显变细,枝和叶密集生在树的顶端。叶子长势颇奇,一般树叶是表面朝天,而它的叶是侧面朝天,像挂在树枝上一样,与阳光的投射方向平行。这种特征是为了适应气候干燥、阳光强烈的环境,减少阳光直射面积,防止水分过分蒸发。

杏仁桉树干笔直、树基粗大,树根扎得又深又广,吸水量特别大,有“抽水机”的雅号。它吸的水多,蒸发的水也多。据说它每年可以蒸发掉175吨的水,真是惊人。人们往往把它种在沼泽地区,利用它“抽水”的特性来吸干沼泽,开垦出新的土地。而后,因为沼泽地变成了干燥地,蚊子没有了繁衍的环境,从而防止了疟病传播,所以被当地人称为“防疟树”。
杏仁桉虽然高大,但种子却很小,每粒约为1-2毫米,20粒种子才有一粒米大。可是它生长极快,是世界上最速生的树种之一,五六年就能长成10多米高,胸径40多厘米的大树。
其他“植物世界的吉尼斯纪录”:最古老的树——银杏(2.7亿年前就开始出现);最高的树——杏仁桉(澳大利亚草原,最高达156米);最粗的树——百骑大栗树(西西里岛,直径可达17.5米。周长55米);最轻的树——轻木(盛产厄瓜多尔,比重只有0.1-0.25);最稀有的树——普陀鹅耳枥(普陀岛上,全世界仅有一株);树冠最大的树——榕树(广东天马河边,树冠覆盖约15亩,成为“小鸟天堂”)。
0
0
Article
Miss Chen
02-21
Miss Chen
Description: Initially, this herbaceous perennial plant forms a rosette of 4-7 basal leaves that are widely spreading to ascending. These basal leaves are medium green, glabrous, and usually elliptic in shape; they are longitudinally keeled below (and indented above), while their margins are entire (toothless). A mature plant bolts during the late spring orFlowering Spike early summer to develop an erect flowering stalk about ¾–2½' (20-75 cm.) tall. Below the rachis of the inflorescence, this stalk is medium green, terete, glabrous, and up to ¼" (5-6 mm.) in diameter. About 3-5 alternate leaves are located toward the base of the stalk; they are 2-10" (5-25 cm.) long and 4-12 mm. across. These lower leaves are grass-like in appearance, linear in shape, and entire along their margins; they sometimes wither away prior to the blooming period. The upper leaves along the stalk are reduced to little more than sheaths with lanceolate tips. Above the uppermost leaf, both the peduncle and rachis of the floral spike are medium green, terete, and short-pubescent with non-glandular hairs. About 10-40 flowers are arranged along the rachis in either an open or dense single spiral (latter sometimes appearing to be 2 spirals). Individual flowers are 6-10 mm. long, their 3 petals and petaloid upper sepal forming a white tube-like structure with an upper and lower lip. In addition, there are 2 petaloid lateral sepals that are white, linear in shape, and straight, rather than arching; they are also slightly declined and diverge laterally to some extent from the tube-like structure of the flower. The lower lip of the corolla has crisped margins, while the smaller upper lip is less crisped. The interior of the lower lip is pale yellow. There are also solitary bracts at the bases of the flowers. These bracts are up to ½" long (or slightly longer), ovate with tapered tips, light green, glabrous, and more or less erect, curving to the side of the flowers. The flowers are slightly ascending, widely spreading, or slightly descending, and their tubular structures are arch slightly downward. At the base of the lower lip within each flower, there is a pair of minute calli (protuberances) up to 1 mm. long that are narrowly lanceoloid and often slightly hooked. In Illinois, the blooming period occurs during mid- to late summer, lasting about 3-4 weeks for a colony of plants. However, this orchid can bloom earlier in the year in areas that lie south of the state. After the blooming period, the flowers are replaced by seed capsules about 8 mm. in length that are broadly ellipsoid in shape; they eventually release their minute seeds to the wind. The root system is shallow and spreading, consisting of several fibrous roots that are thick and fleshy. Occasionally, clonal offsets develop from the tips of these fleshy roots. Cultivation: The preference is full sun, moist to dry-mesic conditions, and soil containing silt-loam, sandy loam, or acidic rocky material. A little shade is also tolerated. Northern ecotypes of this orchid are winter hardy to at least Zone 5, although it is rarely, if ever, found in cultivation. Plants transplanted from the wild cannot be expected to survive and this should not be done. Range & Habitat: Grass-leaved Ladies' Tresses is native to widely scattered areas in the southern half of Illinois, where it is rare and state-listed as 'endangered.' Illinois lies along the northern range limit of this species. Populations of this orchid in Illinois have been static or slowly declining; it is more common in SE United States. Habitats include rocky open woodlands, grassy meadows, upland prairies, abandoned fields, and roadsides (even lawns in SE United States). Even though this is considered a conservative species, Grass-leaved Ladies' Tresses is sometimes found in areas with a history of disturbance if it is not too severe. Distribution Map Faunal Associations: The flowers are cross-pollinated primarily by long-tongued bees, including honeybees (Catling, 1983). Occasionally, they are also visited by butterflies and skippers, although these latter insects are not regarded as effective pollinators. Nectar is the floral reward for these visitors. The foliage of Grass-leaved Ladies' Tresses and similar orchids is vulnerable to snails and slugs, especially during the early summer when the weather is wet. In addition, the adults of a weevil, Stethobaris ovata, have been observed to feed on the foliage (Raddoch & Raddoch, 2008). The foliage of this orchid is also vulnerable to White-tailed Deer and other mammalian herbivores, and thus the protection of a sufficiently tall fence may be required to prevent such predation. Photographic Location: A prairie in Fayette County, Illinois. The photograph was taken by Keith & Patty Horn (Copyright © 2015). The photographed floral spike has a dense single spiral of flowers. Comments: This orchid is sometimes called Spring Ladies' Tresses because it blooms during the spring in Florida and along the Gulf coast of SE United States. In Illinois, however, it blooms later during the summer. Grass-leaved Ladies' Tresses (Spiranthes vernalis) has some key characteristics that are useful in distinguishing it from other similar species: 1) its lateral sepals are free to the base, straight but slightly declined, and spread laterally to some extent, 2) its flowers are relatively long, usually exceeding 6 mm. in length, 3) the interior of the lower lip of its flowers is pale yellow, rather than white, green, or bright yellow, 4) its flowers are arranged in a single spiral, although this spiral can vary from quite open to quite dense, 5) it is rather tall for species in its genus, and 6) it usually blooms earlier. The more common Nodding Ladies' Tresses (Spiranthes cernua) differs by having its flowers arranged in twin spirals, the peduncle and rachis of its inflorescence have glandular pubescence, the tube-like structure of its flowers is more downward arching or nodding, and usually its lateral sepals are more elevated relative to this tube-like structure. Another species, Slender Ladies' Tresses (Spiranthes lacera), differs by having basal leaves that are more broad in shape, smaller flowers (about 5 mm. in length), and the interior of the lower lip of its flowers is greenish. Yet another species, Great Plains Ladies' Tresses (Spiranthes magnicamporum), differs by having its flowers arranged in a double spiral, the peduncle and rachis of its inflorescence are glandular pubescent, the lower lip of its flowers is pale yellow not only within its interior, but also along its exterior (usually), its lateral sepals are more elevated relative to the rest of the flower and they often arch upward, its flowers are more fragrant, and they bloom later (during the autumn).
Description: Initially, this herbaceous perennial plant forms a rosette of 4-7 basal leaves that are widely spreading to ascending. These basal leaves are medium green, glabrous, and usually elliptic in shape; they are longitudinally keeled below (and indented above), while their margins are entire (toothless). A mature plant bolts during the late spring orFlowering Spike early summer to develop an erect flowering stalk about ¾–2½' (20-75 cm.) tall. Below the rachis of the inflorescence, this stalk is medium green, terete, glabrous, and up to ¼
0
0
Elite Article
FeedBack

You have any problems or suggestions, please leave us a message.

Please enter content
Download GFinger APP

Scan QR code, download GFinger APP to read more.

QR Code

Scanning QR Code, directly to see the home page

Switch Language
Set
VIP
Sign out
Share

Share good articles, GFinger floral assistant witness your growth.

Please go to the computer terminal operation

Please go to the computer terminal operation

/
Submit success Submit fail Picture's max size Picture's max size Success Oops! Something wrong~