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桂花树叶斑病的防治方法详解

美琪爱拍照
2017-05-24
#桂花叶斑病 是桂花叶片上各种斑点病的总称,如褐斑病、枯斑病、炭疽病等,引起早期落叶、削弱植株生长势、影响观赏价值,同时降低桂花产量,造成经济损失。

桂花褐斑病症状
受害叶片初期出现褪绿小黄斑,逐渐扩展为近圆形病斑,或因受叶脉限制而形成不规则形病斑。病斑黄褐色至灰褐色,外围有一黄色晕圈,直径2~10mm。病部后期着生有黑色霉状物,即病原菌的分生孢子及分生孢子梗。桂花褐斑病病原菌属半知菌亚门、丝孢菌纲、丛梗孢目、尾孢属。子座褐色,近圆形;分生孢子梗成束着生其上,淡橄榄色,无分枝,少有横隔;分生孢子倒棒形,近无色至淡橄榄色,直或微弯曲,大小15~58×2.8~3.7μm。病害在4~10月均有发生,老叶比嫩叶发病严重。病菌以菌丝体在病叶上越冬,为翌年初侵染源。在适宜的温、湿度条件下,病部产生分生孢子,随气流和水滴传到健康叶片上,引起侵染。

桂花枯斑病症状
病菌多从叶尖、叶缘侵入,初为淡褐色小斑点,以后逐渐扩大为圆形或不规则的大型病斑,严重时几个病斑相互连接形成大枯斑,使全叶干枯达1/3~1/2。病斑灰褐色至红褐色,边缘为鲜明的红褐色,有时卷曲脆裂。后期病部产生许多黑色小点粒,即病原菌的分生孢子器。桂花枯斑病病原菌属半知菌亚门、腔孢菌纲、球壳孢目、叶点霉属。分生孢子器近球形,有孔口,直径100~150μm;分生孢子长圆形至近梭形,无色、单胞,大小6.0~9.5×1.8~2.5μm。病菌发育温度10~33℃,最适为27℃。病害多发生在7~11月,病菌以分生孢子器在病叶上越冬,分生孢子由风雨传播。在高温和高湿、通风不良的环境及植株长势衰弱时,发病严重。

桂花炭疽病症状
受害叶片初期出现褪绿小斑点,逐步扩大形成圆形、半圆形或长圆形病斑。病斑浅褐色至灰白色,边缘有红褐色环圈。后期病部产生许多黑色小点粒,即病原菌的分生孢子盘,潮湿时病部出现淡桃红色的黏孢子团。 桂花炭疽病病原菌属半知菌亚门、腔孢菌纲、黑盘孢目、炭疽菌属。分生孢子盘褐色或黑色,直径100~300μm,盘上长有数根刚毛;分生孢子梗圆筒形,大小12~21×4~51μm;分生孢子圆筒形,生于叶片表皮下,成熟后突破表皮,大小11~18×4~6μm。病害4~6月发生较严重,病菌以分生孢子盘在病叶上越冬,由风雨传播。
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