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金苞花栽培中应注意哪些环节

智人
2017-05-20
金苞花又名金虾苞衣花、鸭嘴花。为多年生常绿草质小灌木。花形奇特,顶生穗状花序,由多数密集重叠的心形苞片组成,好似一座金黄色的宝塔。苞片金黄色,形似虾体,故又得名金虾苞衣花。花冠筒状,顶端唇形,白色,从花序基部陆续向上开放,形如鸭嘴。从春至秋,陆续不断开花,夏季为盛花期。

性喜光照充足、高温,湿润环境,要求疏松肥沃、富含腐殖质的沙壤土。在生长发育期间要求充足的光照条件,光线越充足植株生长越茁壮。如光照不足,则茎叶徒长,影响开花。因此,除盛夏外,春、秋、冬季均应放在光照充足的地方培养。春末夏初移到室外阳台上养护,冬季再放回室内阳光充足处培养。盛夏是金苞花的开花繁茂期,应放在适当荫蔽条件下,避免强光曝晒,并注意喷水,增湿降温。


盆栽用土上要注意调配腐殖质丰富的培养土,并且要疏松透气好,切忌用黏重土栽培。一般可用腐叶土6份、园土3份、河沙1份或泥炭土加1/3珍珠岩混合配制,另加少量骨粉作基肥。由于金苞花开花期长,需要勤施稀薄的磷、钾肥,但不能偏施过多的氮肥,不然就会导致茎节细长,花量减少。生长季节注意及时供应复合肥料,肥料供应不足,是金苞花长势衰弱、开花少或不开花的重要原因。与此同时,水分供应不可缺少,盆土要经常保持湿润,但要防止盆内积水。

金苞花喜温暖,如想让其在冬季开花,秋末将其移入温室内,白天室温保持在25℃左右,夜间保持在15℃以上,水、肥供应适当,仍能抽蕾开花。冬季室温不能低于10℃,10℃以下植株停止生长,叶片脱落,低温时间持久会引起植株死亡。

适时摘心,是养好金苞花的又一项技术措施。一般从幼苗期开始适时摘心2~3次,促使多发分枝,则株形发育丰满,开花多而整齐。北方盆栽宜在翌春天暖后换盆,并结合换盆进行修剪,降低植株高度,促使多生分枝、多开花。金苞花常用扦插法繁殖。
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